ABI is the newest and most reliable method of determining the highest arterial occlusive and opening pressures at all four limbs. This patented system uses a combination of pressure measurement and plethysmography. This method produces the most accurate and professional expression of the Ankle-Brachial-Index (ABI).
ABI is the gold standard for screening and diagnosing PAD. Below is the range and interpretation of readings:
• Normal: 1 to 1.29.
• Borderline: 0.91 to 0.99
• Mild PAOD: 0.71 to 0.90
• Medium severe PAOD: 0.41 to 0.7
• Severe PAOD:
Diabetics present an exception to these typical readings. Since arterial compressibility is a result of mediasclerosis, arterial pressure in diabetics is very high. Therefore, an ABI reading of 1.3 or greater could give rise to a media sclerosis diagnosis. The same may be true for patients with chronic kidney deficiency as they also suffer from mediasclerosis.
The ankle-brachial index (ABI) collects blood pressures from your ankle and arm then compares the two values to determine how well blood is flowing in your body. This value can be used to diagnose Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D). The ABI value will give insight into how P.A.D. may be affecting your limbs, however, it doesn’t indicate where blockages occur or the extent to which blockage has taken place.
A buildup of plaque causes arteries to narrow and harden. This condition is called atherosclerosis. When arteries in a patient’s legs become occluded, this condition is referred to as Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D). Blood flow to the legs is compromised due to these clogged and hardened arteries. While P.A.D. appears most frequently in the legs, it may also affect arteries leading to the arms, stomach, brain, kidneys and aorta. When hardening occurs in arteries inside the heart, the condition is called coronary artery disease or cardiovascular disease.
Testing for ABI is generated by collecting blood pressures at the ankle and arm while a patient is at rest. The patient is then instructed to walk on the treadmill for 5 minutes. After this exercise, measurements from the ankle and arm are collected again.
The ABI is calculated by dividing the highest ankle blood pressure reading by the highest arm reading. The resultant data can be used to determine the degree of PAD present. For instance, a drop in the ABI reading after exercise indicates a significant level of PAD.